Degenerative spinal stenosis is a significant public health problem that affects 20% to 25% of Americans and is the most common condition associated with lumbar spine surgery. The United States has the highest rate of lumbar spine surgery in the world, with rates increasing 200% from 1990 to 2001. Physical therapy is usually offered to patients after spine surgery, but this treatment does not appear to be meaningfully better than advice to stay active. Patients after lumbar spine surgery continue to have poorer health compared to the general population. Up to 40% of patients report chronic pain and disability after surgery and 20% to 24% undergo a reoperation. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and self-management treatments show promise, but are unavailable or insufficiently adapted for postoperative care. To address this problem, our research team recently completed a small trial that showed the benefits of a cognitive-behavioral-based physical therapy (CBPT) program for pain and disability in a surgical spine population. Patients in the CBPT group reported a decrease in symptoms and improvement in pain, general health, and physical activity. The current study uses a larger and more diverse adult population to assess the CBPT treatment, with the goal of engaging patients in their own care and improving outcomes that are relevant and meaningful to them. This study will compare which of two treatments provided by telephone -- a CBPT program focusing on self-management or an education program about postoperative recovery -- is more effective for improving outcomes in patients following surgery for lumbar degenerative conditions. This study will address several questions. First, what are the most important outcomes to adults recovering from lumbar spine surgery? Second, what is the impact of CBPT or education on patient-centered outcomes? Finally, how does CBPT improve outcomes and which subgroups of patients are most likely to benefit? We propose to answer these questions using several strategies. To identify outcomes important to patients and refine our treatments, we will conduct interviews and focus groups in patients who have recently completed a small trial of our CBPT program. We will then recruit 260 patients from two medical centers and community surgical practices. These patients will be randomly assigned to the CBPT or education treatments following lumbar spine surgery. Treatments consist of six weekly telephone sessions with a trained physical therapist. The primary outcomes will be pain, disability, general health, and physical activity, and patients will be followed for 12 months after surgery. Patient stakeholders will help refine the research questions, treatments, and outcomes and ensure that materials are easily accessible to patients. The results of this study will provide low-cost evidence-based programs that clinicians can recommend, and patients can do, after spine surgery to improve outcomes.