Final Research Report

View this project's final research report.

Peer-Review Summary

Peer review of PCORI-funded research helps make sure the report presents complete, balanced, and useful information about the research. It also assesses how the project addressed PCORI’s Methodology Standards. During peer review, experts read a draft report of the research and provide comments about the report. These experts may include a scientist focused on the research topic, a specialist in research methods, a patient or caregiver, and a healthcare professional. These reviewers cannot have conflicts of interest with the study.

The peer reviewers point out where the draft report may need revision. For example, they may suggest ways to improve descriptions of the conduct of the study or to clarify the connection between results and conclusions. Sometimes, awardees revise their draft reports twice or more to address all of the reviewers’ comments. 

Peer reviewers commented, and the researchers made changes or provided responses. The comments and responses included the following:

  • Reviewers said the report is well written but difficult to read given the complex statistical terminology. In response, the researchers wrote the introduction to be more direct and contain less jargon.
  • Reviewers wondered how the study results can be used given that baseline characteristics of the patient population led to heterogeneous effects on multiple outcomes. The researchers agreed that their results cannot be easily generalized to other populations. The researchers emphasized that the goal of this methods study was to help show that investigators should not be looking for the effective treatment for a given population but the most effective mix of treatments for that population, such that a specific patient could not do better switching to a different treatment.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Project Information

John Brooks, PhD
University of South Carolina^
Understanding Treatment Effect Estimates When Treatment Effects Are Heterogeneous for More Than One Outcome

Key Dates

September 2013
February 2019

Study Registration Information

^John Brooks, PhD was affiliated with the University of Iowa when this project was funded.


Has Results
Award Type
Health Conditions Health Conditions These are the broad terms we use to categorize our funded research studies; specific diseases or conditions are included within the appropriate larger category. Note: not all of our funded projects focus on a single disease or condition; some touch on multiple diseases or conditions, research methods, or broader health system interventions. Such projects won’t be listed by a primary disease/condition and so won’t appear if you use this filter tool to find them. View Glossary
Intervention Strategy Intervention Strategies PCORI funds comparative clinical effectiveness research (CER) studies that compare two or more options or approaches to health care, or that compare different ways of delivering or receiving care. View Glossary
State State The state where the project originates, or where the primary institution or organization is located. View Glossary
Last updated: March 4, 2022