Final Research Report

This project's final research report is expected to be available by November 2022.

Peer-Review Summary

Peer review of PCORI-funded research helps make sure the report presents complete, balanced, and useful information about the research. It also assesses how the project addressed PCORI’s Methodology Standards. During peer review, experts read a draft report of the research and provide comments about the report. These experts may include a scientist focused on the research topic, a specialist in research methods, a patient or caregiver, and a healthcare professional. These reviewers cannot have conflicts of interest with the study.

The peer reviewers point out where the draft report may need revision. For example, they may suggest ways to improve descriptions of the conduct of the study or to clarify the connection between results and conclusions. Sometimes, awardees revise their draft reports twice or more to address all of the reviewers’ comments. 

Peer reviewers commented and the researchers made changes or provided responses. Those comments and responses included the following:

  • The reviewers questioned the study conclusions because the study design included a nonrandomized participant cohort recruited by their peers, potentially biasing the results. The reviewers went on to suggest the possibility that motivation to quit smoking was high among the peer-recruited individuals not because of the peer recruitment tools used but because those recruited were asked by someone they knew. The researchers acknowledged the potential bias by adding the concern to their study limitations. They also added comments in the report indicating that just being recruited by their peers could add to individuals’ motivation to quit smoking.
  • The reviewers noted that the researchers’ first aim was to reach and recruit a greater proportion of African American smokers than typically participated in research studies, but there were no strategies implemented to target their recruitment. The reviewers asked for more information on how the researchers tried to engage African American smokers to participate in the study. The researchers stated that they did not make any additional efforts to recruit African American smokers beyond the use of the peer recruitment materials. They just counted on repeating the success of their pilot study in recruiting African American smokers. The researchers also acknowledged that one strategy that might have helped recruit hard-to-reach populations—providing incentives for peer recruitment—had been dropped early on because of concerns that such a practice would not be sustainable in a real-world implementation of the intervention.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Project Information

Rajani Sadasivam, PhD
University of Massachusetts Medical School
Smoker-to-Smoker (S2S) Peer Marketing and Messaging to Disseminate Tobacco Interventions

Key Dates

December 2016
February 2022

Study Registration Information


Has Results
Award Type
Health Conditions Health Conditions These are the broad terms we use to categorize our funded research studies; specific diseases or conditions are included within the appropriate larger category. Note: not all of our funded projects focus on a single disease or condition; some touch on multiple diseases or conditions, research methods, or broader health system interventions. Such projects won’t be listed by a primary disease/condition and so won’t appear if you use this filter tool to find them. View Glossary
Populations Populations PCORI is interested in research that seeks to better understand how different clinical and health system options work for different people. These populations are frequently studied in our portfolio or identified as being of interest by our stakeholders. View Glossary
Intervention Strategy Intervention Strategies PCORI funds comparative clinical effectiveness research (CER) studies that compare two or more options or approaches to health care, or that compare different ways of delivering or receiving care. View Glossary
State State The state where the project originates, or where the primary institution or organization is located. View Glossary
Last updated: May 31, 2022