Results Summary

What was the research about?

Type 2 diabetes is a health problem that causes blood sugar levels to rise. Diabetes causes many health problems and can be hard to manage. Clinicians, like doctors and nurses, may need to spend extra time planning care for these patients. This kind of planning, called chronic care management, or CCM, may include working with other doctors and following up with patients online or by phone outside of regular office visits. In 2015, Medicare started to pay clinicians for CCM services.

In this study, the research team wanted to learn whether CCM leads to better health outcomes for patients with diabetes. They compared health records for patients who received CCM with patients who didn’t receive it.

What were the results?

Compared with the group of patients who didn’t receive CCM, the group of patients who received CCM had lower:

  • Average blood sugar levels
  • Average body weight
  • Average blood pressure
  • Average cholesterol
  • Percentage of patients with overweight
  • Percentage of patients with hypertension

The group of patients who received CCM also had an increase in doctor’s office visits and a decrease in hospital and emergency room visits. The two groups didn’t differ in the percentage of patients who had serious heart problems, like a heart attack or stroke.

Who was in the study?

The study included health records from 22,347 patients with type 2 diabetes. All received care at one of three health systems in Louisiana between January 2013 and February 2020. Of these patients, 39 percent were Black, and 3 percent were Hispanic or Latino. The average age was 72, and 55 percent were women.

What did the research team do?

The research team looked at health records for patients to see if they received CCM. They then looked at patients’ health records for the two years before and after they received CCM. The team compared this group of patients to a group of patients with similar traits who didn’t receive CCM.

Patients with type 2 diabetes, doctors, and insurers helped design the study.

What were the limits of the study?

Because of the study design, it isn’t possible to know for sure if the changes in patient health happened because of CCM or something else that occurred at the same time. The study included patients from three health systems in Louisiana. Results may differ for patients in other states.

Future research could look at the impact of CCM in other states.

How can people use the results?

Policy makers can use the results to understand how CCM affects patient health.

How this project fits under PCORI’s Research Priorities
The research reported in this results summary was conducted using PCORnet®, the National Patient-Centered Clinical Research Network. PCORnet® is intended to improve the nation’s capacity to conduct health research, particularly comparative effectiveness research (CER), efficiently by creating a large, highly representative network for conducting clinical outcomes research. PCORnet® has been developed with funding from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute® (PCORI®).

Final Research Report

This project's final research report is expected to be available by May 2023.

Journal Citations

Related Journal Citations

Peer-Review Summary

The Peer-Review Summary for this project will be posted here soon.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures

Project Information

Lizheng Shi, PhD, MA, MSPharm
Tulane University
Natural Experiments of the Impact of Population-Targeted Health Policies to Prevent Diabetes and Its Complications

Key Dates

January 2016
November 2022

Study Registration Information


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Intervention Strategy Intervention Strategies PCORI funds comparative clinical effectiveness research (CER) studies that compare two or more options or approaches to health care, or that compare different ways of delivering or receiving care. View Glossary
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Last updated: November 30, 2022