Project Summary

This research project is in progress. PCORI will post the research findings on this page within 90 days after the results are final.

What is the research about?

Well-child care visits are a key part of a child’s early life. During these visits, doctors track a child’s growth and developmental milestones, and the child receives recommended vaccines. But well-child care visits may not address important needs for families with low incomes. For example, families may have unmet social needs, such as a lack of food or housing. 

In this study, the research team is comparing standard well-child care visits to team-based well-child care visits. The team-based visits include a health coach. Coaches ask families about their social needs and connect them with services like food, transportation, and housing. Coaches also discuss concerns about the child’s development and behavior. 

Who can this research help?

Results may help clinic administrators when considering ways to improve well-child care for families with low incomes. 

What is the research team doing?

First, the research team is adapting the team-based approach to well-child care visits to meet the needs of Black families. For example, the team is training community health workers to serve as health coaches. 

Next, the team is enrolling 13,980 children between 9 and 15 months of age from one of 12 primary care clinics in Columbus, Ohio. Most of the children have Medicaid insurance. All families receive standard well-child care visits at the start of the study. The team is then assigning groups of clinics by chance to start the adapted team-based visits at different times during the study. 

The research team is reviewing electronic health records every nine months for five years. The team is looking to see how often children receive well-child care visits and go to the emergency room, or ER. The team is also asking families about their experiences with care and if they receive services and referrals.

Parents, pediatricians, and staff from Nationwide Children’s Hospital primary care network are helping to plan and conduct this study. 

Research methods at a glance

Design ElementDescription
DesignStepped-wedge randomized controlled trial
Population13,980 children between 9 and 15 months old
  • Team-based well-child care visits
  • Standard well-child care visits

Primary: receipt of preventive care services, ER visits, parent experiences of care

Secondary: receipt of additional preventive care services, other healthcare utilization (well-child care visits, acute care visits, hospitalizations), identified as “at-risk” following developmental screening

Timeframe  Timeframe Length of follow-up for collecting data on primary outcomes. View Glossary 5-year follow-up for primary outcomes 

*Patient-Centered Economic Outcomes Funding Supplement 
This study received supplemental funding to build on existing PCORI-funded comparative clinical effectiveness research (CER) studies to improve the understanding of appropriate costs and other economic burdens that are meaningful and inclusive to patients, caregivers and other stakeholders.

Project Information

Tumaini Coker, MD, MBA
Seattle Children's Research Institute
Comparing Two Models of Well-Child Care for Black Families

Key Dates

July 2022
April 2029

Study Registration Information


Award Type
Health Conditions Health Conditions These are the broad terms we use to categorize our funded research studies; specific diseases or conditions are included within the appropriate larger category. Note: not all of our funded projects focus on a single disease or condition; some touch on multiple diseases or conditions, research methods, or broader health system interventions. Such projects won’t be listed by a primary disease/condition and so won’t appear if you use this filter tool to find them. View Glossary
Populations Populations PCORI is interested in research that seeks to better understand how different clinical and health system options work for different people. These populations are frequently studied in our portfolio or identified as being of interest by our stakeholders. View Glossary
Intervention Strategy Intervention Strategies PCORI funds comparative clinical effectiveness research (CER) studies that compare two or more options or approaches to health care, or that compare different ways of delivering or receiving care. View Glossary
State State The state where the project originates, or where the primary institution or organization is located. View Glossary
Last updated: March 28, 2024